And he applied the scientific method to study the optimal way to do any type of workplace task. As such, he found that by calculating the time needed for the various elements of a task, he could develop the "best" way to complete that task. These "time and motion" studies also led taylor to conclude that certain people could work more efficiently than others. These were the people whom managers should seek to hire where possible. Therefore, selecting the right people for the job was another auto important part of workplace efficiency. Taking what he learned from these workplace experiments, taylor developed four principles of scientific management. These principles are also known simply as "Taylorism".
A factory manager at that time had very little contact with the workers, and he left them on their own to produce the necessary product. There was no standardization, and a worker's main motivation was often continued employment, so there was no incentive to work as quickly or as efficiently as possible. Taylor believed that all workers were motivated by money, so he promoted the idea of "a fair day's pay for a fair day's work." In other words, if a worker didn't achieve enough in a day, he didn't deserve to be paid as much. With a background in mechanical engineering, taylor was very interested in efficiency. While advancing his career at. Steel manufacturer, he designed workplace experiments to determine optimal performance levels. In one, he experimented with shovel design until he had a design that would allow workers to shovel for several hours straight. With bricklayers, he experimented with the various motions required and developed an efficient way to lay bricks.
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Understanding taylorism and Early management Theory istockphoto hadynyah, taylor investigated the "science" of shoveling. How did current management theories develop? People have been managing work for hundreds of years, and we can trace formal management ideas to the 1700s. But the most significant developments in management theory emerged in the 20th century. We owe much of our understanding of managerial practices to the many theorists of this period, who tried to understand how best to conduct business.
Historical Perspective, one of the earliest of these theorists was Frederick winslow taylor. He started the Scientific Management movement, and he how and his associates were the first people to study the work process scientifically. They studied how work was performed, and they looked at how this affected worker productivity. Taylor's philosophy focused on the belief that making people work as hard as they could was not as efficient as optimizing the way the work was done. In 1909, taylor published "The Principles of Scientific Management." In this, he proposed that by optimizing and simplifying jobs, productivity would increase. He also advanced the idea that workers and managers needed to cooperate with one another. This was very different from the way work was typically done in businesses beforehand.
Intelligence alertness Insight responsibility initiative persistence self confidence sociability o stogdill,1974 survey:Analyzed163 is surveywasmore balancedandarguedthat that bothPersonalityandSituational factors were equal determinantsof leadership. The drive vigorand persistentpursuitof goals. willingnesstoadventure drive to exercise initiative insocial situations. self-confidenceandsense of personal identity. Abilitytoinfluence otherpersons'behavior capacityto structure social interactionssystemstothe purpose oathand.
He identifiedleadersashaving strengthinthe conservatism. lord et al,1986 meta-analysisprocedure. locke and Kirkpatrick,1991 contendedthat"Leadersare not like otherpeople".Theypostulated that leadersdifferfrom non-leadersin6 traitsincluding:Drive,desire tolead,honesty,integrity, self-confidence,cognitive ability, andknowledgeof the business. The trait approach anda centuryof researchgivesthe would-beleadersasetof traits that they can develop. Stogdill (1948) Mann (1959) Stogdill (1974) Lord, devaderand Allinger(1986) Kirkpatrickand Locke (1991) Intelligence Alertness Responsibility Initiative persistence self-confidence sociability Intelligence masculinity Adjustment Dominance Extroversion Conservatism Achievement Persistence Insight Initiative self-confidence responsibility cooperativeness Tolerance Influence sociability Intelligence masculinity dominance Drive motivation Integrity confidence cognitive ability task. O self confidence abilitytobe certainaboutone'includes self-esteem, self- assurance and belief thatone canmake a isisveryimportantforability to influenceothers. O determination desire toget the leadersexhibitingthisare proactive, andhave the capacityto persevere against obstacles. O integrity heretoa strongsetof principlesandtake confidence inothers. Theydo whattheysay there are goingto.
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The self-monitoringscale The self-monitoringscale wasdesignedtomeasure the tothe expectationsof othersinasocial alsomeasuresthe extenttowhichthe personisable to shape hisor her behaviortomatchthose ththe malesandfemalesreceivedvarying scoreson the females'scoreswere relatedtothe numberof e explanationthatGaryOdouscame up withgoesas follows: The female studentswere adistinctminorityinthe class. Eachstudygroup had one or twofemales amongthe e classis offeredinthe collegeof business, where the majorityof the studentsare a result, we mightassume thatthe subjectmatterof the class-andindeedthe classitself-mightbe ra female. Memberof the studygroupto emerge as a leader, she hadtorecognize the masculine demandsof the e were betterable todo thisthanthose withlow self-monitoringscores. The Trait Approach cusedonwhat made people "great leaders".Identifiedinnate characteristicsforthe "GreatMan" traitsthatpeople are bornwith(Bass, 1990; Jago, 1982) Duringthe mid-20th century, the theorywaschallenged(Stogdill, 1948) that "no trips consistentsetof traits whowasaleaderinone situationmightnothave beena wasre-conceptualizedasa relationshipbetweenpeople as opposedtoa set of traits(Stogdill,1948). The trait approach emphasizesthe personalityof the leader. In recentyears, there hasbeena yman,1992; Lord devaderandAlliger1986 foundthat personalitytraitswere leadership. locke and Kirkpatrick1991, claimedthateffectiveleadersare actuallydistincttypesof peoplein several keyrespects. It startedwitha focuson the traits, shiftedtofocuson a goodoverviewwasfoundin 2surveys o stogdill,1948 thesis survey:Analyzed124 individual does notbecome aleadersolely basedon possessingthese e traitsmustbe relevanttothe situationinwhichthe e situational factor.
the manager haseye alwaysonthe bottomline;the leaderhashiseye onthe horizon. the manager imitates;the leaderoriginates. the manager acceptsthe status quo;the leaderchallengesit. the manager isthe classicgood soldier;the leaderishisownperson. the manager doesthingsright;the leaderdoesthe rightthings. Leadership definitions It isclear that leadershipcanbe definedinmanydifferentways andthere are more subjective waysof youreadabouttheoriesand youwill recognize thatthe leadership, and that theyfocuson somewhatdifferentaspectsof the jobrequirementsof example of a theorythat isnot coveredinthe and decisiontree approach. The decisiontree approach make a decisiononhis/herownorif the group shouldbe involvedinthe thisapproach, you ask a seriesof yes/noquestionsandbasedonthe response toeachto each branch, the decisiontree takesyouto the nextquestionortoa final decision. The questionsof the decisiontree involve whetherthe leaderhasthe informationnecessarytomake the decision,whetherthe followershave the likelytoacceptthe decisionif the leadermakesitalone, andso e processis designedtohelpthe leadermake ordelegate the decision. Thisapproach clearlyfocusesonone aspectof leadership(decisionmaking) thisisanexampleof a contingencytheoryof leadership One material isthe difference between emergentand assigned nyof the approachesand theoriessetforthdeal withemergentleadershipand fewof themtalkabout the assignedleadershiproles.
hisclassicOn becominga leader(1989, 44-45) he has written aboutthe differencesof leadersandmanagersasfollows:. the manager administers;the leaderinnovates. the manager isa copy; the leaderisan original. the manager maintains;the leaderdevelops. the manager leaderfocusesonpeople. the manager reliesoncontrol;the leaderinspirestrust. the manager hasa short-range view;the leaderhasalong-range perspective. the manager askshowand when;the leaderaskswhatand why.
The followingmaterial isahighlevel summaryof twelve coversa theory/e sectionscoverthe myreadingsfroma diversityof booksandexperience obooksinparticular, Ihave foundto be indispensable andare a mustread. managementof Organizational Behavior, paul Hersey, seventh Edition. On leadership, in perusingthese materials,Ididnotfinda simple answerorrecipe mother suspected, leadershipisapart of all us at home,inour beneficial to me wasthat readingthroughthe varioustheories,andcase studies, Iwasable to identify withmanyof these hadenrichedme withaninsightaboutmyself andthose i would relate behaviorthatI or someone iknowwasengagedin. It isthat veryawarenessof bothmy personal possible. Iamthe firstto admitthat learningaboutall these approachestoleadershipdoesnot automaticallymake one agoodleader, buttheygive atremendousinsightandthe possibilitytobecome a betterone. My ownviewisthat"Leadership is a processto changeorcreate something fromwhatotherwisewould be mustbe highly flexible and demandsawareness,skills,and is highly dependent on situations. Leadership is being human."Inmyview, the combinationof the majorityof these approachesandtheoriesisthe true eyare all equallyeye openingforeveryonein an organization.
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